Hello, today’s topic is a bit unusual, maybe even a little inappropriate in relation to the topic of this website. However, it refers to the science and the work of scientists, so I decided to introduce it because it was hidden in the bundle of post ideas from the very beginning.
Scientific facts, clusters of information which scientists have confirmed or discovered by using scientific methods. Well, the facts are something that is proven to be correct, but some of these facts do not stay true forever.
With the discovery and application of new methods of study and the accumulation of knowledge, some facts can be disproven with time and replaced with new ones. With that, knowledge is expanded and refined.
This, of course, does not mean that the fact was not correct but it was real for a certain research method, time and/or location. It could be said that some facts have “expiration date”.
From this perspective, it’s more important how someone researched things, to get to the fact, than the fact itself. It’s also important which method or methods were used, how many repetitions of the experiment were done, how many specimens/samples were studied, etc.
Statistics is the science of developing knowledge through the use of experiential information. It’s based on mathematical statistics, which is a branch of applied mathematics. In the statistical theory of spontaneity and insecurity described in the context of the theory of probability. Whereas it is the task of statistics, to extract the “best” information from available data, some put it within the theory of decision making.
Statistical methods are based on the theory of probability. The basic concepts are population patterns, sampling and probability assumptions. The starting point for the statistical work is the collection of data, either through surveys or through systematic observation, followed by summarizing, using descriptive statistics. Statistics deals with the processing, analysis, presentation of mass phenomena in science, economics, industry, agriculture, health, social life, education, biology, transport, trade, environmental protection, and all of the geographical sciences.
Statistical treatment of the data formats the data in such a way that allows us to assume the result for a larger population, represented by the sample. Such treatment shall include tests of assumptions (e.g., survey questions with two possible answers), the determination of the characteristics of the collected quantitative data, time series (e.g., forecasting future trends) describe the interaction (correlation), the creation of relations between variables (regressions), and more.
In statistics, the data is formatted, summarized and generalized to reflecting the presumption (or better said give an answer to the question of the experiment). This does not mean that the result is absolutely right, that would be possible only in the case, ( for example) if ALL specimens of the species that we are studying would be studied, which of course, is not possible. Therefore, we have to make do with best for par which provides statistics. Of course, it is necessary that a sufficient number of specimens/samples are examined for good results.
Because of this, you can find irregularities between the result of research and a random observed specimen/sample. This does not refute the facts to which the scientist came to, but it confirms that the method is not perfect and allows minor deviations.
However, it is also necessary to be aware that any (natural) Science only sorts nature in a way that makes it comprehensible to us, which is not necessarily correct. Nature and natural processes are very difficult to properly categorize in order to explore, so we rely on what we already know, and try to upgrade that knowledge.